O iq option paga mesmo
0 the sourceMappingURL comment is not included in the compressed file. To locally download these files, right-click the link and select Save as. from the menu. link jQuery. For help when upgrading jQuery, please see the upgrade guide most relevant to your version. We also recommend using the jQuery Migrate plugin. link Downloading jQuery using npm or Yarn. You can install the latest version of jQuery with the npm CLI command. As an alternative you can use the Yarn CLI command.
This will install jQuery in the node_modules directory. Within node_modules jquery dist you will find an uncompressed release, a compressed release, and a map file. link Downloading jQuery using Bower. jQuery is also registered as a package with Bower. You can install the latest version of jQuery with the command. This will install jQuery to Bower s install directory, the default being bower_components.
Within bower_components jquery dist you will find an uncompressed release, a compressed release, and a map file. The jQuery Bower package contains additional files besides the default distribution. In most cases you can ignore these files, however if you wish to download the default release on its own you can use Bower to install jQuery from one of the above urls instead of the registered package.
For example, if you wish to install just the compressed jQuery file, you can install just that file with the following command. link jQuery Migrate Plugin. We have created the jQuery Migrate plugin to simplify the transition from older versions of jQuery. jQuery is registered as a package on npm. The plugin restores deprecated features and behaviors so that older code will still run properly on newer versions of jQuery. Use the compressed production version to simply fix compatibility issues without generating console warnings.
Use the uncompressed development version to diagnose compatibility issues, it will generate warnings on the console that you can use to identify and fix problems. There are two versions of Migrate. The first will help you update your pre-1. 9 jQuery code to jQuery 1. You can get that version here. The second version o iq option paga mesmo you update code to run on jQuery 3. 0 or higher, once you have used Migrate 1. x and upgraded to jQuery 1. link Cross-Browser Testing with jQuery. Be sure to test web pages that use jQuery in all the browsers you want to support.
The Microsoft Developer Resources site makes available virtual machines for testing many different versions of Internet Explorer. Older versions of other browsers can be found at oldversion. link jQuery Pre-Release Builds. The jQuery team is constantly working to improve the code. Each commit to the Github repo generates a work-in-progress version of the code that we update on the jQuery CDN. These versions are sometimes unstable and never suitable for production sites.
We recommend they be used to determine whether a bug has already been fixed when reporting bugs against released versions, or to see if new bugs have been introduced. link Using jQuery with a CDN. CDNs can offer a performance benefit by hosting jQuery on servers spread across the globe. This also offers an advantage that if the visitor to your webpage has already downloaded a copy of jQuery from the same CDN, it won t have to be re-downloaded.
link jQuery s CDN provided by StackPath. The jQuery CDN supports Subresource Integrity SRI which allows the browser to verify that the files being delivered have not been modified. This specification is currently being implemented by browsers. Adding the new integrity attribute will ensure your application gains this security improvement as browsers support it. To use the jQuery CDN, just reference the file in the script tag directly from the jQuery CDN domain.
com and clicking on the version of the file that you want to use. Copy and paste that tag into your HTML file. Starting with jQuery 1. 9, sourcemap files are available on the jQuery CDN. However, as of version 1. 0 the compressed jQuery no longer includes the sourcemap comment in CDN copies because it requires the uncompressed file and sourcemap file to be placed at the same location as the compressed file.
If you are maintaining local copies and can control the locations all three files, you can add the sourcemap comment to the compressed file for easier debugging. link Other CDNs. The following CDNs also host compressed and uncompressed versions of jQuery releases. 9 they may also host sourcemap files; check the site s documentation. Note that there may be delays between a jQuery release and its availability there. Please be patient, they receive the files at the same time the blog post is made public.
Beta and release candidates are not hosted by these CDNs. link About the Code. jQuery is provided under the MIT license. The code is hosted and developed in the jQuery GitHub repository. If you ve spotted some areas of code that could be improved, please feel free to discuss it on the Developing jQuery Core Forum. If you d like to participate in developing jQuery, peruse our contributor site for more information. To find and download plugins developed by jQuery contributors, please visit the Plugins site.
Plugin authors are responsible for maintenance of their plugins. Feedback on plugins should be directed to the plugin author, not the jQuery team. link Build from Git. Note To just use the latest work-in-progress version of jQuery, please try the jQuery Pre-Release Build described above. All source code is kept under Git revision control, which you can browse online.
The repository s README has more information on building and testing your own jQuery, as well as instructions on creating a custom build that excludes some APIs to reduce file size. If you have access to Git, you can connect to the repository here. You can also check out and build a specific version of jQuery from GitHub. The README file for a specific version will have instructions for building that version, as the process has changed over time.
link Past Releases. All past releases can be found on the jQuery CDN. You can also use the slim build, which excludes the ajax and effects modules. It provides everything you need to play all your audio and video files. The Full variant of the codec pack contains a few extras compared to the Standard variant of the codec pack. Download K-Lite Codec Pack Full. Detailed differences between the four variants of the codec pack can be found on the comparison of abilities and comparison of contents pages.
The other variants are Basic, Standard, and Mega. August 22nd 2020. 34 Updated LAV Filters to version 0. Updated MPC-HC to version 1. 1-71-gcb503 Updated MPC Video Renderer to version 0. 0 Added thumbnail options for MP3 WAV for files that have embedded coverart. 1457 Updated Codec Tweak Tool to version 6. Filename K-Lite_Codec_Pack_1570_Full. exe Size 49131 KB MD5 8e0fef7b834f4f785235045cbb2b095c SHA256 68cd553b8a8f48c8cae64329fc038128a5e3ba33f283824586c043fd320346a6.
Do not install downloaded files that have different values. Genuine K-Lite files always have the exact same filename, size and hashes as indicated above. The last version that is compatible with Windows XP SP3 is version 13. More information about this variant of the codec pack can be found on its contents and changelog pages. Old versions. Download links for old versions of the K-Lite Codec Pack can be found HERE.
HDR Video Playback. To play such videos you need to use the included MPC-HC player and select Madvr as the video renderer. 5which can be downloaded HERE. Madvr will automatically send the HDR metadata to your TV when it is HDR capable. Otherwise it will convert the video to SDR so you can watch it with proper colors on a normal monitor TV. You can select Madvr here MPC-HC options Playback Output Video Renderer Or during installation of the codec pack.
The codec pack contains a plugin for decoding H. 264 MVC 3D Video. To properly watch such videos you should use the included MPC-HC player 64-bit version and select Madvr as the video renderer. Note currently only HDR10 format is supported. Outputting 3D video to your monitor TV requires Windows 8. x 10 or Windows 7 with a modern NVIDIA GPU. Not Dolby Vision. Note playback of SBS side-by-side and Top Bottom 3D video does not have the above requirements.
Your TV should have an option to turn this into 3D. Such videos are actually encoded as 2D video. In case of NVIDIA you must use driver version 418. 3D support was removed in newer versions. MPC-HC is capable of playing Blu-ray discs. There are just two limitations 1 It doesn t support Blu-ray menus. It automatically plays the longest title on the disc. Other titles can be accessed through the Navigate menu of the player. 2 The disc must be decrypted using an external tool.
Do you like our software and want to make a small donation. For example AnyDVD HD or Passkey Lite. Visit our donate page. Download QuickTime 7. New versions of Windows since 2009 have included support for the key media formats, such as H. Important QuickTime 7 for Windows is no longer supported by Apple. 9 for Windows. 264 and AAC, that QuickTime 7 enabled. All current Windows web browsers support video without the need for browser plug-ins.
If you no longer need QuickTime 7 on your PC, follow the instructions for uninstalling QuickTime 7 for Windows. What s New in QuickTime 7. 9 QuickTime 7. 9 contains security updates and is recommended for all QuickTime 7 users on Windows. If you still need this legacy plug-in, you can add it back using the custom setup option in the installer. QuickTime 7 is for use with Windows Vista or Windows 7. If installed on other versions of Windows, it may not offer full functionality.
The QuickTime web browser plug-in is no longer installed by default and is removed if you have a previous version of QuickTime on your PC. Get the professional vector graphics editor. About Overview Features Screenshots Governance Licensing Branding Download Current Version Latest Development Version Extensions News Community Code of Conduct Forums Chat Mailing Lists Gallery Teams Learn FAQ Books and Manuals Tutorials Animation Contribute Testing Report Bugs Translations Community To-Do List Promote Contributor Stats Develop Getting Started About SVG Coding Style Bug Management Inkscape s Repositories Debugging Extensions Support Us Shop Donate Hackfests Funded Development SVG Standards Work Sponsors.
Draw Freely. Explore Features Find out what Inkscape is capable of Community Gallery Showcase of creations from the community Learning Resources HowTos, Videos, Tutorials and more. A powerful, free design tool. Whether you are an illustrator, designer, web designer or just someone who needs to create some vector imagery, Inkscape is for you.
Flexible drawing tools Broad file format compatibility Powerful text tool Bezier and spiro curves. Want to find out more about how Inkscape can help you. Look at the full set of features or try it. We are social. Google Summer of Code 2020. Applications are open for the 15 th time to improve Inkscape and develop your skills within GSoC paid internship. Join our thriving community. We can always use help from more people.
If you can write code, you may be able to involve in development; if you can t, there are still lots of things we can use help with. Recent Sponsor. For more information, take a look at our Contribute section. Inkscape version 1. 1 patches crashes bugs. Inkscape s team of developers has patched bugs and crashes, and generally improved on version 1. 0 in this latest release, version 1.
You ll find a few features, too, along with translation updates for more than a dozen languages. Built with the power of a team of mostly volunteers, this open source vector editor represents the work of many hearts and hands from around the world, ensuring that Inkscape remains available free for everyone to download and enjoy. Inkscape s Summer of Hackfest 2020 is ONLINE. Inkscape is preparing a Summer of Hackfest 2020 Online on Saturdays between July 11 and August 15 2020. That s six Saturdays in a row for a six-hour stretch each time via live video.
Everyone is welcome. Inkscape contributor organizing Gimpscape s inaugural Artweek. Open source software artists and designers have a new place to learn online, thanks to the Gimpscape design community s inaugural Artweek, an online event taking place on June 27-28, 2020. Inkscape is Free and Open Source Software licensed under the GPL. Droid4X is a full-featured Android emulator that you can use for anything, from video games like Clash of Clans or Subway Surfers, to apps like Kitchen Stories or Tubemate.
Robust Android emulator with lots of options. Thanks to Droid4X you can now use practically any application on Android. 2 which you can use for almost any app from the immense Android catalogue. This operating system is one of the most widely used operating systems out there, which is why it is familiar to almost all users. From Droid4X you re now able to record video files of anything happening on the emulator screen, you even have the option to toggle image quality settings anyway you want.
The operating system for Droid4X is based on Android 4. Another very interesting option is customizing controls. One thing though, your video will have a Droid4X watermark. When you run an app you ll be able to create personalized controls simply and intuitively. In less than a o iq option paga mesmo, you ll have to configure your keyboard or gamepad so that it ll adapt to literally ANY video game on Android. Droid 4X is an excellent Android emulator, thanks to which you ll be able to enjoy all of the thousands of interesting apps that exist for the most widely used operating system in the world.
You ll also be able to download Android apps directly off of the Uptodown website. One of the biggest problems when trying to capture videos directly on your Android device is that it causes serious bottleneck especially when you try to shoot in real-time. This occurs even more so when using an app specifically designed for rendering video and both the app and the game are running simultaneously. Thankfully, there are tricks for improving the quality of both of them among which apps that run from an Android emulator for PCs and capturing with a desktop tool designed with this in mind like Open Broadcaster Software.
Recently, we talked a lot about the best Android emulators for PCs, but back then we somehow forgot to mention a key game changer of paramount importance. It s also highly compatible, and will even run well with today s newest releases. Droid4X is one of the top alternatives for running smartphone apps on PCs. Category Emulators background Layer 1.
Not only fully adapted to touch screens, with a wide array of options to choose from in terms of output resolution, but it also lets you make videos of any program running on your screen. Author Haiyu Dongxiang Co. Downloads 3,475,916 background Layer 1. Opinions about Droid4X. Where do i find the android settings in DroidX.
aplicativo bom admito que quem criou vou muito exemplar. Works very well, with amazing speeds, BUT every few weeks it starts to crash, unable to open the emulator. All i see is google settings. Error Code 21. So after that I just uninstall and install again, and problem solved. can t even get it to open or even delete. Just keeps asking if I want to make changes to my computer and when I click yes nothing happens.
Not worth the time or hassle. This is the best emulator with Root Access, Download it. Downloads 3,471,081 background Layer 1. Downloads 3,474,307 background Layer 1. By emulating a Xbox 360 controller, many more games are accessible. Simple Clean UI. Use your PS4 Controller on your PC to its full potential. Since the idea is to get to get your o iq option paga mesmo ready for games, The UI was made to make to be quick to pick up.
Profile System. Once first launched, the tool takes your through the setup, gives you a default profile and you re ready to go, or if you choose you can change things to your heart s content. With profiles, it makes it easier to quickly swap through various settings o iq option paga mesmo your controller. You can set up controls for certain games, or set the lightbar to your favorite color. You can even swipe two fingers along the touchpad to swap profiles without the need to even open back the program.
Automatic Profiles. Along with switching profiles manually, you can also switch your controllers to different profiles automatically when certain programs are launched. Tons of options. From control mapping, to touchpad sensitivity, to marcos, to rainbow lightbar, to motion controls, to special actions triggerd by pressing multiple actions, to launching a program with profiles, there are plenty of settings to play around with.
Special thanks to Galatis. Launch DS4Windows If not in Program Files, choose where you want to save profiles A windows will pop up showing how to install the driver, if not, go to settings and click Controller Driver Setup If you have used SCP s tool in the past, you may need to uninstall the drivers to use the DS4 with bluetooth Connect the DS4 via a micro usb or through bluetooth DS4 Device name Wireless Controller may need to enter pair code 0000 All should be good to go once you connect the controller, if not restart DS4Windows, or even your computer.
Download zip Extract the 2 programs DS4Windows and DS4Updater in the zip wherever you please My Docs, Program Files, etc. Note same games work with the DS4 without DS4Windows however it does use rumble etc. Games like these can cause double input in menus ie pressing down on the dpad moves 2 spaces or the wrong button to do incorrect functions. To solve this, check Hide DS4 in the settings, if you see a warning in the log text on the bottom, that means you must close said game or client that causes the conflict and reconnect the controller.
Full list of Features. Use X360-like input to use the DS4 in more games and have rumble Use the touchpad as a mouse or for more actions Use sixaxis movement for just as many actions Control the Lightbar turn it off, dynamicly change by battery level, and more Map the buttons and sticks to other 360 controls or keyboard actions or macros Use profiles to quickly switch between configurations for your controllers Automatically switch profiles by when a certain program s is launched Hold an action to access a new whole set of controls Get a reading of how the sticks and sixaxis is working Assign a deadzone to both analog sticks, the triggers, and the sixaxis Automatically get o iq option paga mesmo updates.
5 or higher needed to unzip the driver and for macros to work properly DS4 Driver Downloaded Installed with DS4Windows Microsoft 360 Driver link inside DS4Windows, already installed on Windows 7 SP1 and higher or if you ve used a 360 controller before Sony DualShock 4 This should be obvious Micro USB cable Optional Bluetooth 2. 1via adapter or built in pc Recommended Toshiba s bluetooth Bluetooth adapaters using CSR currently does not work. Is bluetooth audio support coming. So long as I work by myself, never.
What about CSR and Toshiba bluetooth adapters. I can t say for certain about either, I ve picked up a CSR adapater, and will attempt to make it work, but no guarantees. I m getting double input Weird input in some games, how do I fix it. That s because the game tries too though usually badly support the DS4 on it s own. You can solve this by enabling Hide DS4 Controller in DS4Windows settings, then connect the controller BEFORE you launch the game.
I don t have the know-how to understand reverse engineering the DualShock 4 to enable its audio jack. Keyboard emulation isn t working in game, what do. When setting a key for a button, check the scan code box. This isn t a guarantee to work with all games, but it will add support for more games. If scan code doesn t work with the game, then DS4Windows simply can t emulate for that game. Why is Dinput only mode acting weird when using the controller with bluetooth. Currently BT doesn t work with Dinput mode.
Added support for New DS4 Controller thanks andersfischernielsen Fixed sensitivity for sticks, causing crashes when trying to edit a profile Typo fixes thanks josevill Updates to German, Polish, Nederlands and more translations. Added support for the New DS4 USB Adapter Thanks to boganhobo and Chamilsaan Implemented teokp s amazing fix for hide ds4 not working on the anniversary update of Windows 10 when a controller fails to enter exclusive mode, DS4Windows will ask for admin privilages to fix the issue.
Now near unlimited Special Actions can be made from the previous limit of 50 Special Action Xbox Game DVR is now no longer limited to Windows 10, renamed multi action button Assign a macro to single tap, double tap, and holding down a button Added option for White DS4Windows Icon in the notification tray While not merged from, thanks to tehmantra Added option to temporarily turn off DS4Windows when using a certain program togglable in the Auto Profiles Tab Same case as above but thanks to dedChar to bring to light Fixed Options crashes in certain locales where decimal points are represented with commas, such as German Thanks to kiliansch Added Updated translations for many languages, now including Japanese, Slovenian, Hungarian, Greek, Finnish, Czech, Indonesian, and Ukrainian.
Fixes for inverting the sticks Updated French, German, Russian, and Vietnamese translations, and added more credits. DS4Updater 1. Added backup method of updating should anything happen with github. Revised shift modifier each button control has their own independent shift trigger instead of one universal one Select an action window this window now highlights what said control is currently set to.
Removed unused images, making the exe a meg smaller Completely revised how the code for custom mapping works Updated all translations, added partial Dutch Nederlands Support. Changed the Rainbow button to an actual button For using the sixaxis as a mouse, changed none to Always on, also better movement for the gyro when the sensitivity is lowered Updated Hebrew, Chinese TraditionalItilian, Chinese Simplified. Added Sensitivity settings for both sticks, triggers, and the gyro Fixed the select an action window popping up after closing the profile settings or in another tab Fixed the lightbar button on the main tab being so long, along with some other random ui fixes Fixed many issues with making a new profile When using a custom color the light now fades out based on the current profile settings ie.
when the battery is low Added Hebrew and Vietnamese translations Updated Chinese TRussian, German, Polish. Fixes for when users want to skip downloading their native langauge. The tool was later branched off by electrobrains. DS4Windows was a project originally started by InhexSTER by the name of DS4 Tool. I later decided to branch off my own and add things such as profiles. DS4Windows is a portable program that allows you to get the best experience while using a DualShock 4 on your PC.
The browser you ve got now is a little bit like trying to race a Model T at a Nascar race. It s better for you and everyone else if you upgrade today to a browser that can handle the new technologies on the internet. Whoa, Whoa, Whoa. You re using an outdated version of Internet Explorer. Seriously, you have no idea how far backwards websites have to bend to make themselves look tolerable on your browser.
You can upgrade to a modern browser for free at this link, so there s no problem. Just go upgrade and then come back, and you ll be able to see the e-Sword website in all its glory. See you then. You need this to get started. This basic installation includes the King James Bible and the King James with Strong s numbers study Bible, the Strong s Lexicon, Smith s Bible dictionary, Meyer s devotional commentary, and the Treasury of Scripture Knowledge cross references.
You can also download additional resources using the Download menu within e-Sword. If updating an existing e-Sword installation then make sure it is not already open when you run the setup, otherwise its files cannot be updated. Help keep e-Sword available on the Internet for free. Donate Get USB Flash Drive -. To download and install e-Sword on your PC, please follow these simple steps. Click the top button that says e-Sword Install. When your browser s Save dialog appears, choose Save to start the download.
Open Run the file for example by opening the folder where you saved it and double-clicking the installation file. There is no need for uninstalling older versions before updating. The installation program guides you through the rest of the process. It is recommended to use the default settings for installation. If you need help in getting started using e-Sword, visit the Training page.
Minimal system requirements. Windows XP Pro 2003, Vista, or Windows 7 8 10 Intel 8086 based PC or equivalent 800 x 600 resolution or greater. e-Sword is also available for the Apple Mac, iPad, and iPhone. Bible Study for the Mac. Bible Study for the iPad. Bible Study for the iPhone. The Berean Bible Study Library for e-Sword. Special Offer save 40. Berean Bible Study Library. You are on your way to new depths of discovery and understanding of God s Word.
To help you maximize your e-Sword Bible study, eStudySource has put together an exclusive offer of 40 savings. The Berean Bible Study Library includes 3 of the most popular Bible study resources for e-Sword. is a leading Bible translation that remains faithful to the original languages and the heritage of the KJV, yet is highly readable.
Believer s Bible Commentary. New King James Version. Vines Dictionary. is the most trusted word study resource for discovering the meaning of the words of the Bible. Copyright Rick Meyers. is the best 1-volume commentary for balanced, evangelical explanation of Scripture. Pillowcase 17,3 x 17,3 45 x 45 cm. Size A inch B inch. More designs by TobiHEAZ. More Pillow Cases. Join us for EclipseCon 2020. EclipseCon 2020 is a free virtual event for the Eclipse community. The Eclipse Foundation provides our global community of individuals and organizations with a mature, scalable, and business-friendly environment for open source software collaboration and innovation.
Copyright Eclipse Foundation, Inc. IDE and Tools Projects Working Groups Research Eclipse Report a Vulnerability Service Status. Virtual Conference on Security, Artificial Intelligence, and Modeling for the Next Generation Internet of Things. Register now for Eclipse SAM IoT 2020. Fragile X Syndrome. Fragile X Syndrome Center Patient Comments Fragile X Syndrome - Experience Patient Comments Fragile X Syndrome - Symptoms Patient Comments Fragile X Syndrome - Carrier Patient Comments Fragile X Syndrome - Educational Options Fragile X syndrome facts What is Fragile X syndrome.
What keeps the FMR1 gene from producing FMRP in Fragile X syndrome. Human cells 101 How many people are affected by Fragile X syndrome. How is Fragile X syndrome inherited. What are the signs and symptoms of Fragile X syndrome. Intelligence and learning Physical Social and emotional Speech and language Sensory Is there a cure for Fragile X syndrome.
Are there treatments for Fragile X syndrome. What should I do if I find out someone in my family has Fragile X syndrome. Educational options Therapeutic options Medication options What are the options for adults who have Fragile X syndrome. What is being done to develop treatments or a cure for Fragile X syndrome. What causes Fragile X syndrome. Where can I go for more information about Fragile X syndrome. Fragile X syndrome facts.
Two Newlyweds Fight Fragile-X Associated Tremor Ataxia Syndrome FXTAS. One caregiver s story. My name is Marciabut sometimes I call myself the bride of FXTAS. The first noticeable symptom was that Henry fell down while playing golf - medics were called and could find nothing apparently wrong with Henry. FXTAS stands for Fragile-X Associated Tremor Ataxia Syndrome, the degenerative neurological disorder that attacked my 64-year-old husband Henry a month after we were married in 1999.
It took over five years of worsening symptoms - including more frequent falls, difficulty walking, cognitive decline and incontinence examinations by five neurologists and many diagnostic tests before Henry was diagnosed with FXTAS. For the seven-plus years of our marriage. What is Fragile X syndrome. Readers Comments 19 Share Your Story.
Names have been changed to maintain privacy. Fragile X syndrome also called Fragile X is the most common inherited form of mental retardation. It results from a change, or mutation, in a single gene, which can be passed from one generation to the next. Fragile X appears in families of every ethnic group and income level. Symptoms of Fragile X syndrome occur because the mutated gene cannot produce enough of a protein that is needed by the body s cells, especially cells in the brain, to develop and function normally.
The amount and usability of this protein, in part, determine how severe the effects of Fragile X are. The most noticeable and consistent effect of Fragile X is on intelligence. More than 80 percent of males with Fragile X have an IQ intelligence quotient of 75 or less. 1 The effect of Fragile X on intelligence is more variable in females. Some females have mental impairment, some have learning disabilities, and some have a normal IQ.
People with Fragile X syndrome also share certain medical problems as well as many common physical characteristics, 2 such as large ears and a long face. Since 1991, when researchers funded by the NICHD discovered the gene that causes Fragile X, scientists have learned a great deal about that gene s structure and functions. The NICHD continues to support clinicians and scientists around the world who are working to find effective behavioral or other therapies, medical treatments, and prevention strategies for Fragile X.
The NICHD recognizes that there is a debate about the use of the term mental retardation, and that self-advocacy groups and professional associations are currently discussing alternative terms. In addition, having Fragile X is often associated with problems with sensation, emotion, and behavior. Until a consensus is reached, and with the goal of addressing health-related issues faced by people with what has been traditionally known as mental retardation, this article uses that term to describe some features related to Fragile X syndrome.
For more information, please see the Additional Resources section of this article. The underlying cause of Fragile X is a change in a single gene, the Fragile X Mental Retardation 1 FMR1 genewhich is found on the X chromosome. See the Human cells 101 section for more information about the X chromosome. But how does this change cause Fragile X. The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development NICHDpart of the National Institutes of Health NIHis a major sponsor of research on Fragile X syndrome.
Causes of Mental Retardation. Mental retardation is associated with more than 500 conditions. Down syndrome, due to an error in the number of chromosomes Fragile X, due to a repeat in the genetic code that leads to a lack of production of a certain protein PKU phenylketonuriadue to an error in a single gene that makes a defective enzyme. Some of the most commonly known genetic causes among these are. Other causes of mental retardation that can occur during pregnancy include the mother s excessive use of alcohol, exposure to poisons in the environment, and diseases such as rubella.
Genes contain the information used by other parts of a cell to make proteins. Proteins are the body s building blocks. Each protein performs a specific job. They make up the structure of your organs and tissues and are needed for all of your body s chemical functions. Each gene contains information for making at least one protein. If this information is changed, then the cell may not be able to make that protein, or it may not be able to make a form of the protein that the body can use.
Fragile X occurs because the FMR1 gene is unable to make normal amounts of usable Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein, or FMRP. The amount of FMRP in the body is one factor that determines how severe the effects of having Fragile X are. A person with nearly normal levels of FMRP usually has mild or no symptoms, while a person with very little or no normal FMRP has more severe symptoms.
Scientists are still studying the role of FMRP in the body. One current research study revealed that certain cell processes brain cells use to communicate with one another occur in excess in mice that have little or no FMRP; that is, he brain cells may communicate too much or may communicate inappropriately. Researchers believe that FMRP may regulate the amount of communication between cells and keep it under control.
Scientists are hopeful that they can identify a similar function for FMRP in humans. Latest Mental Health News. Dangerous Abuse of Anxiety Drug Phenibut In These Tough Times, Focus on Resilience Join the Chorus Singing Can Be Safe Financial Stress Greatly Ups Suicide Risk Each Day Sober Slowly Helps Alcoholics Brains Want More News. Daily Health News. Sign Up for MedicineNet Newsletters. Can Leg Fat Fight Hypertension. Restaurants, Bars Are COVID Hotspots Hope Against Dyslexia How Reliable Are COVID-19 Tests.
Wildfires, COVID, and Lung Health More Health News. Trending on MedicineNet. Cold Stages of Lyme Disease Flu Shot O iq option paga mesmo Areata Chiggers Bites. The information for making a protein has two parts the introduction, and the instructions for the protein itself. Scientists call the introduction the promoter region of the gene because of its role in starting the protein-building process.
For a more complete description of how proteins are made and the parts of a cell involved in making a protein, see the Human cells 101 section. The promoter region of the FMR1 gene contains repeats of a specific sequence cytosine-guanine-guanine or CGG-see the Human cells 101 section for specific information about the CGG sequence that, when normal, controls the activity level of the gene in building FMRP. Most people who do not have Fragile X have between six and 40 CGG repeats, 3 with the average being about 30 repeats in the promoter region.
However, in a mutated FMR1 gene, the promoter may have hundreds of repeated sequences. A gene with 55 to 200 repeats is generally considered a premutation. A gene with more than about 200 repeats is called a full mutation. The larger number of repeats more than 200 inactivates the gene. This inactivation process is called methylation. When the gene is inactivated, the cell may make little or none of the needed FMRP. What goes wrong in a mutated gene.
A number of things can go wrong in a gene that can result in a mutation. The mutation affects the gene s ability to make the needed amount of protein or to make enough usable protein. Some of these mutations include. In the case of Fragile X, usually the FMR1 gene is present, and its chemical sequence is correct, so neither A nor B apply. The number of repeated sequences in the promoter region varies from person to person. However, a mutated FMR1 gene includes repeats of a specific sequence in its promoter region, which creates a mutation like the one shown in situation C.
The number of repeats and their effects are still being studied. At the time this article was printed, the numbers included here were the most commonly cited for premutation in the published scientific literature Fragile X Syndrome Handbook 2002 National Fragile X Foundation; American College of Medical Genetics Statement Technical Standards and Guidelines for Fragile X 2001 ; Rousseau et al. 1996 American Journal of Human Genetics 59 Suppl A188-1069. However, some research categorizes the premutation differently.
For instance, in Crawford et al.61 to 200 repeats is a premutation, while 41 to 60 repeats is an intermediate mutation Genetics in Medicine 2001; 3 359-371. The American Academy of Pediatrics Policy Statement. Tassone et al. Health Supervision for Children with Fragile X Syndrome uses 50 to 200 repeats for premutation Pediatrics 1996; 98 2 297-300. American Journal of Medical Genetics 2000; 97 3 195-203 use large premutation 100 to 200 repeats and small premutation 55 to 100 repeats.
You may encounter differences in the number of repeats for a premutation depending on your source. One interesting aspect of Fragile X is that, even with a full mutation gene, the body may be able to make some FMRP. Three things affect how much FMRP is produced. The number of CGG repeats. People with a full mutation 200 or more repeats usually have many of the more severe symptoms associated with Fragile X.
In contrast, people with a premutation gene may have few, if any, symptoms and may not even know they carry a mutated gene. Researchers are still trying to sort out any, patterns or trends in the symptoms of people with a premutation gene. Not every cell in the body is exactly the same. In Fragile X, this means that some cells may have 200 or more repeats in the FMR1 promoter, while other cells, premutation cells, may have fewer than 200 repeats. This is called being mosaicmeaning either that the mutation is in some of the cells, but not all of them, or that it is not in all of the cells to the same degree.
Being mosaic. The premutation cells may be able to make FMRP. Similarly, methylation may not happen at all, or to the same degree, in every cell. If enough cells produce FMRP, the symptoms of Fragile X will be milder than if none of the cells produce FMRP. Being female. Because females have two X chromosomes, females with Fragile X have one normal FMR1 gene and one mutated FMR1 gene in most of their cells.
But, only one X chromosome is active in each cell, and only the genes on the active chromosome are used to build proteins. The cell seems to randomly choose which chromosome is used. In some cells, then, the X chromosome that contains the normal FMR1 gene is active, and the cell uses it to make FMRP. For this reason, the symptoms of Fragile X usually affect females less often and less seriously than males.
Human cells 101. More than 100 trillion cells make up the human body. As a result, even females with a full mutation are often able to make some of the needed protein. Most of these cells contain all the genes and other information needed to build a human being. Much of this genetic information is found in the nucleus of the cell, a control center that keeps all the material together in one place.
The nucleus stores its genetic material in packages called chromosomes. Most people have 46 chromosomes in each cell-23 from their mother and 23 from their father. After fertilization, the two sets of chromosomes match up to form 23 pairs. The chromosomes in the 23rd pair are called the sex chromosomes, X and Y; they determine a person s sex. Males usually have one Y chromosome and one X chromosome; females usually have two X chromosomes.
Each chromosome is made up of genes. Genes contain the information used by other parts of the cell to make proteins, the body s building blocks. Proteins make up the structure of your organs and tissues; they are also needed for your body s chemical functions. Each protein performs a specific job in different types of cells, and the information for making at least one protein is contained in a single gene.
Genes are made up of various lengths of DNA, which contains four chemicals adenine Aguanine Gcytosine Cand thymine T. These chemicals line up like beads on a necklace to form strands of code. They also pair up with each other to form the double strands that are characteristic of DNA. The gene s chemical code for a protein has two parts the introduction area promoterand the instructions for creating the protein.
The instructions for making the protein are inside the cell s nucleus, but the parts that actually make the protein are outside the nucleus. To send the instructions to the protein-producing areas of the cell, the gene reads the chemical code and rewrites it into a new form called messenger RNA. The new form is then sent out of the cell s nucleus to make proteins. But, if either the original code or the new form of the code is incorrect or has missing parts, the cell can t make the correct protein.
This is what happens in Fragile X. Without the protein, the body may not develop or function normally. The FMR1 gene contains too many repeats of one specific sequence, CGG, which is an important part of the promoter region for making FMRP see the figure below. The number of CGG repeats affects how the code is read and rewritten into its new form. So when the new form of the code gets to the protein-making areas of the cell, the cell has trouble using it to make FMRP, the protein that is abnormal, missing, or in low amounts in people with Fragile X.
The cell either can t use the code, and so makes no FMRP, or tries to use the code and makes abnormal or unusable FMRP. Subscribe to MedicineNet s Children s Health Parenting Newsletter. I also agree to receive emails from MedicineNet and I understand that I may opt out of MedicineNet subscriptions at any time.
For more information, please consult the specific articles or the national organizations listed in the Where can I go for more information about Fragile X syndrome. section of this article. Readers Comments 1 Share Your Story. Because both males XY and females XX have at least one X chromosome, both can pass on the mutated gene to their children. Diagram A Father Y X Fragile Mother X Boy. X X Fragile X Boy. A father with the altered gene for Fragile X on his X chromosome will only pass that gene on to his daughters.
He passes a Y chromosome on to his sons, which doesn t transmit the condition. Therefore, if the father has the altered gene on his X chromosome, but the mother s X chromosomes are normal, all of the couple s daughters would have the altered gene for Fragile X, while none of their sons would have the mutated gene see Diagram A. Current research indicates that a father can pass on the premutation form of the FMR1 gene only to his daughters.
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